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欧美人不吃转基因食品

流言欧美不消费转基因食物。
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真相美国94%的大豆种植面积为转基因大豆,人均大豆油消耗高于中国,大豆油主要以混合植物油、氢化植物油的形式销售;加工食品中大豆蛋白的应用也十分广泛。欧盟对于转基因作物上市的决定相对北美国家来说,更加小心一些。但是这并不代表在欧盟国家就没有转基因作物和转基因食品了。很多时候,欧盟会先批准某种转基因作物作为饲料上市,几年以后再批准同一种作物作为食品上市。很多国家都对转基因食品有各种标示规定,也反映出转基因食品在当地食品业中的存在。

论证

美国:转基因大豆消费大国

美国94%的大豆种植面积为转基因大豆,有人说美国人不吃转基因大豆,这些大豆都用来做饲料和工业原料,那么实际情况呢?

我们来看一下美国农业部公布的大豆油在中国和美国的食用情况[1]:


然后注意看这张表的最下面,就是大豆油的国内消费量,中国的确是世界第一,但是美国是世界第二,这里的单位是1000吨,所以说2012年中国国内消费了12545000吨大豆油,美国国内消费了8476000吨大豆油,考虑到中国的人口是美国的4倍多,美国的人均大豆油消费量比中国的多。

可能看到这里很多人会觉得很奇怪,因为你在美国的超市里如果买油,是很难看到有一种油叫做大豆油的。

但他们还是在吃的,只是商家会把大豆油和玉米油等一些便宜的油混在一起卖,叫做Vegetable Oil!,可以理解成他们的调和油。

给大家看两张美国休斯顿超市里食用油的货架:


第一张图是普通的油,主要是大豆油和一种油菜榨的油,以及瓜子油花生油之类。全都没有标注是否是转基因的。第二张图是一个较小的有机食品货架,这些油要贵好几倍,种类也少,没看到大豆油,两种油菜油上标着“经第三方认证不含转基因成份”云云。

油菜榨的油就是canola,Canadian Oil Low Acid的全称,指的是低芥酸油菜籽。瓜子油说的是葵花籽油,sunflower seed oil。

Canola和大豆一样,在北美都是转基因比例占到90%左右的作物。大豆主要是在美国种植,canola则是加拿大种的更多。

在美国人的饮食中,植物油的很大一块用途其实是在烘焙上,做面包做蛋糕这些。而如果你了解过烘焙,就会知道无论国内国外,都不推荐食用大豆油做蛋糕,因为有豆腥味。

呢吗如果美国人不买很多纯大豆油回来炒菜,他们是怎么做到人均食用超过中国人的呢?

答案很简单:氢化植物油,部分氢化的和完全氢化的都有。比如著名的Crisco,一种固态的植物油,美国家庭常见的油脂:

Crisco的网站上列出了成分表Ingredients:
SOYBEAN OIL, FULLY HYDROGENATED PALM OIL, PARTIALLY HYDROGENATED PALM AND SOYBEAN OILS, MONO AND DIGLYCERIDES, TBHQ AND CITRIC ACID (ANTIOXIDANTS).

排在第一名的就是大豆油.

很多消费者网站列出了美国常见的含有氢化植物油的食物:
  • Cake mixes, biscuit, pancake and cornbread mixes, frostings 蛋糕预拌粉,松饼,玉米面包粉,糖霜
  • Frozen bakery products, toaster pastries, waffles, pancakes(冷冻糕点,可用面包机加热的点心,华夫饼,冷冻松饼)
  • Cakes, cookies, muffins, pies, donuts蛋糕,饼干,马芬蛋糕,派,甜甜圈
  • Whipped toppings(可打发的糖霜)
  • Crackers 咸脆饼干
  • Margarines, shortening(人造黄油,Crisco类的非黄油类固态油脂)
  • Peanut butter (except fresh-ground)花生酱(现磨的除外)
  • Instant mashed potatoes(速食土豆泥)
  • Frozen entrees and meals(冷冻正餐)
  • Taco shells(墨西哥玉米脆饼)
  • French fries(炸薯条)
  • Cocoa mix(冲泡可可粉)
  • Most prepared frozen meats and fish (such as fish sticks)(大多数冷冻的肉类和鱼,比如炸鱼条)
  • Microwave popcorn(微波炉爆米花)

当然这几年美国人均大豆油的消耗增加其中一小部分也很生物柴油有关,但是生物柴油占得比例仍是不太高。(红色是生物柴油)


总的来说,美国人的确人均消耗掉不少大豆油,只不过他们吃下去的方式是以混合植物油(中国人叫调和油),氢化植物油的形式,只是因为饮食习惯,他们并不像中国人一样买一大桶一大桶的大豆油而已。

其实大豆蛋白也是类似的,美国人人均豆浆、豆腐的摄入量肯定不如中国,超市里也看不到卖整粒黄豆的给人们回家打豆浆发豆芽的,但是他们吃的加工食品,从肉类食品到谷物食品中,处处都可以看见大豆蛋白的身影。

欧盟:严控审批过程、强制标识

长期以来,关于欧盟国家是否批准转基因作物种植和食用的争论很大。一种观点认为,欧盟绝对禁止转基因作物。不过另有观点认为,在欧盟国家,转基因食品必须标注。这两种说法互相矛盾,让人怀疑。欧盟到底有没有“绝对”禁止转基因作物?如果没有的话,转基因作物进入欧盟的过程是什么[2]?

漫长的申请过程

转基因食品想要在欧盟国家上市,需要经过一系列手续。欧盟的调控比美国要严一些,所以完成这些手续的时间也会长一些。这可能是在欧盟国家上市的转基因食品和饲料种类比较少的原因。

要想让自己的转基因产品进入欧盟市场,转基因公司首先需要向欧盟提交申请。在申请中,转基因公司必须提供足够的科学证据说明自己的转基因食品对人类的健康是无害的。仅仅保障转基因食品的安全性是不够的,转基因公司还要拿出数据说明这种转基因食品和非转基因食品的营养成分基本不存在区别。此外,申请的公司还要提供检测转基因成分的方法。这是第一步。

在接到申请以后,欧盟食品安全局会组织来自各成员国的独立科学家,成立一个委员会,评估提交的转基因产品。一般来说,欧盟食品安全局有6个月的时间来做决定,不过在某些时候,这个时间还会更长一些。评估委员会的科学家会仔细研究提交申请的转基因作物是否和传统作物实质上相同。有的时候,欧盟的一些实验室也会提供帮助。在评估完成一后,欧盟食品安全局会发表报告,公布结果。随后,报告会提交至欧盟委员会(European Commission )以及各成员国。

欧盟委员会在收到来自食品安全局的报告以后,会用3个月的时间完成一份决定的草稿。如果这份草稿和食品安全局的结论出现分歧,那么还要附上书面的说明。在完成草稿以后,欧盟委员会会把草稿再次提交至欧盟食品链和动物健康委员会(The Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health)进行表决。食品链和动物健康委员会包括了所有会员国的代表。如果食品链和动物健康委员会对草稿的支持率低于62%,这份草稿将继续上交到欧盟理事会(European Council)。如果欧盟理事会否决了这份草稿,那么欧盟委员会必须对其进行修改;反之,如果欧盟理事会同意了这份草稿,那么草稿就会变成正式的文件,开始发挥法律效力。

所以,欧盟对于转基因作物上市的决定相对北美国家来说,更加小心一些。但是这并不代表在欧盟国家就没有转基因作物和转基因食品了。很多时候,欧盟会先批准某种转基因作物作为饲料上市,几年以后再批准同一种作物作为食品上市。很多反转基因言论就是抓住了这个时间差,认为在欧洲,转基因作物只能给牲口吃,不能给人吃。

在欧盟上市的转基因作物

欧盟早在1998年就批准了孟山都公司培育的转基因玉米MON810在欧洲种植和上市。MON810玉米也是欧洲种植最广泛的转基因作物。在西班牙,转基因玉米的种植面积超过了玉米总种植面积的五分之一。此外,捷克,葡萄牙,波兰等国家也种植了转基因玉米。

虽然欧盟国家种植的转基因作物种类很少,但是在食品市场上流通的转基因作物就多得多了。玉米是最重要的转基因作物之一。到目前为止,欧盟一共批准了22种转基因玉米上市,所有的这些转基因玉米都可以作为食物使用。这些不同品系的转基因玉米来自不同的公司,包括美国的孟山都和陶氏益农,瑞士的先正达以及德国的拜耳农业。另外还有数十种转基因玉米的上市申请正在审批当中。

另一种常见的转基因作物是大豆。欧盟已经批准了3种转基因大豆作为食物和饲料使用。另外还有11种转基因大豆的品种正在申请。除了大豆和玉米,可以在欧盟上市的转基因作物还包括一种甜菜,三种油菜,以及一种土豆。这种转基因土豆更适合作为工业原料使用,不过欧盟仍然给出了食品上市许可。

值得注意的是,被批准在欧盟国家上市的转基因作物中,极少有只能作为饲料或是工业原料使用的。绝大部分转基因作物都可以作为食物成分使用。

科学Vs.政治

尽管欧盟对转基因作物的态度相对明确,但是各个成员国却没有对转基因作物的态度达成共识。在某些欧洲国家,一些反转基因组织的能量相当强大,他们不断地运动,试图影响政府的决策。2008年,希腊和匈牙利以MON810转基因玉米有可能破坏环境为理由,禁止了这种转基因作物。欧盟食品安全局随后再次对MON810进行了评估,并认为希腊和匈牙利的转基因禁令是不合理的。2009年,德国政府同样以对环境存在潜在威胁为理由,禁止了MON810转基因玉米。次年,一项系统的元分析研究显示,德国政府的决定并没有科学依据[5]。科学再次站在了政府决策的对立面上。

欧洲的转基因争论已经进行了十几年,这也让争论双方更加理性。政府禁止转基因作物种植的理由主要是对于环境的考虑,而非认为转基因作物会损害人体健康。但是对于科学界来说,转基因作物对于环境的负面影响在合理的种植条件下可以忽略,相反的是,转基因作物对环境带来的好处却非常明显。所以某些欧盟成员国政府的禁令并不能得到欧盟的支持。

因为欧盟食品安全局的评估主要是由科学家组成的,所以他们的报告受政治干扰的可能性最小,而欧盟食品安全局对于转基因的态度在各方中是最坚定的。在所有上市的转基因作物的报告里,欧盟食品安全局几乎无一例外得做出相同的结论:这种转基因作物和非转基因作物一样安全。从2007年以来,欧盟批准转基因作物的速度越来越快。2010年,共有10种转基因作物拿到了许可,创造了一个记录。也许这就是科学逐渐战胜偏见的一个体现吧。

图表显示,获得欧盟批准上市的转基因作物逐渐增多。


转基因食品:标识还是不标识?

举几个国家做例子[3]:

欧盟是强制标识,但标识的最低限量是0.9%,即食品中某一种种类的转基因成分达到0.9%时,必须要标识;

美国是自愿标识,但部分州要求立法进行标识管理;

中国是强制标识,只要含有转基因成分就必须标识;

由此看来,中国实行的标识标准最为严格。

有转基因标注规定的国家,其实就说明了这个国家考虑到了转基因原料在其食品供应体系的存在。



图片来自《转基因30年实践》,农业部农业转基因生物安全管理办公室 ,中国农业科学院生物技术研究所 ,中国农业生物技术学会

参考资料

[1]转基因大豆在美国是饲料和工业原料流言百科
[2]欧盟禁止转基因作物流言百科
[3]转基因食品在国外不是强制标识流言百科

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共同编辑: 飘飘37 球藻怪

最后更新:2014-01-02 17:30

分类: 食品安全> 转基因     标签:转基因

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