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指尖接触镜子表面,可以鉴别究竟是真正的镜子还是单向玻璃

流言女孩子到公共浴室、更衣室等公共场所时请注意啦,环绕你的玻璃究竟是真的镜子还是单向玻璃(你看不见别人,别人可以看见你)?各位不妨做做以下的小试验:将指尖和镜子接触。当你的指尖与镜中成像毫无距离时,说明是单向玻璃;如果指尖和镜中成像隔开一小段距离,说明是镜子。
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真相确实可以通过这个“指尖法”来验证玻璃是单向玻璃还是普通的镜子。但它有时会无效。

论证

手指测试的原理

“你看不见别人、别人可以看见你”的单向玻璃是实际存在的。“手指法”对鉴别这种玻璃真的有效吗?镜子能照见人,靠的是反射光线。不过,反射光线的并非玻璃本身,而是一层薄薄反射层(通常是银、铝等金属)。常见的镜子,反射层都镀在后表面,光线照到玻璃的后表面才会反射回来。光线在被反射回来之前照射到的物体都会出现在镜子里的图像中,如果把指尖按在镜子上(玻璃的前表面),眼睛看到“镜子后面”先有一个同样厚度的玻璃,然后才是手指的图像,手指和镜像手指之间会有一段距离,不会贴在一起。(需要说明的是,为了简化问题,这里忽略了玻璃对光线的折射问题。)

但并非所有的镜子都是这样的,有的镜子反射层就镀在镜子的前表面。这种设置可不是为了怪蜀黍方便的。刚才说到普通的镜子,有一个缺陷——光线照到玻璃的前表面的时候也会多少反射一些,同时还会有折射,这会稍微影响镜像的质量。这个缺陷对镜子前的自恋狂当然没多大影响,但对于一些精度要求高的地方,比如天文望远镜,芝麻绿豆大的误差也不可以容忍,所以一定要使用前表面反光镜。了解了工作原理就不难明白了,把手指贴到前表面反光镜上,真手指和假手指就会贴到一起。

很显然,这种手指探测方法适用于区别正常的镜子和前表面反光的镜子。但是一般在浴室这样的公共场所,不会看到那种在精密仪器中才会出现的镜子。在这些地方,如果你发现手指和镜像贴在了一起,就可能是遇到了在玻璃前表面贴有半反射膜的双向玻璃了。


该方法有局限性

正如镜子的反射层可以镀在镜子的后表面,也可以镀在其前表面一样。双向玻璃的半反射膜也可以前后任意设置,甚至可以如同三明治一样,被夹在两块玻璃的中间。当半反射膜贴在这种“镜子”的前表面时,可以借助“手指法”甄别,但在其他情况下,你再祭出“手指法”恐怕就要吃亏了。


参考资料:

[1] Snopes
[2] Handbook of modern sensors: physics, designs, and applications 作者:Jacob Fraden
[3] How do one-way mirrors work?
[4] “一根手指”鉴别浴室偷窥狂?Albert_JIAO,果壳网谣言粉碎机

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共同编辑: 清洁工 moogee 冈部红莉栖 红色皇后 小耿

最后更新:2013-08-24 09:56

分类: 科学技术> 生物学     标签:物理

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